2015 RevModPhys:Dielectric microcavities: Model systems for wave chaos and non-Hermitian physics

Dielectric microcavities:Model systems for wave chaos and non-Hermitian physics

Hui Cao*

Department of Applied Physics,Yale University,

New Haven,Connecticut06520-8482,USA

Jan Wiersig†

Institut für Theoretische Physik,Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg,

Magdeburg,Postfach4120,D-39016Magdeburg,Germany

(published22January2015)

This is a review on theoretical and experimental studies on dielectric microcavities,which play a significant role in fundamental and applied research。The basic concepts and theories are introduced。

Experimental techniques for fabrication of microcavities and optical characterization are described.

Starting from undeformed cavities,the review moves on to weak deformation,intermediate deformation with mixed phase space,and then strong deformation with full ray chaos。Non-Hermitian physics such as avoided resonance crossings and exceptional points are covered along with various dynamical tunneling phenomena。Some specific topics such as unidirectional output,beam shifts, wavelength-scale microcavities,and rotating microcavities are discussed。The open microdisk and microsphere cavities are ideal model systems for the studies on wave chaos and non-Hermitian physics。

DOI:10.1103/RevModPhys.87.61PACS numbers:42.55.Sa,05.45.Mt,42.60.Da,42.25.−p

CONTENTS

I.Introduction61

A.Motivation61

B。Scope63 II。Theoretical Model and Experimental Techniques64

A.Mode equation and wave simulations64

B.Ray model65

C.Husimi functions67

D.Cavity fabrication68

1.Liquid droplets and microjets68

2。Solid microspheres and microtoroids69

3。Microdisks and micropillars70

E。Optical characterization71

1。Passive cavities71

2.Active cavities71 III.Overview of Nondeformed Dielectric Microcavities71

A.Whispering-gallery modes71

B.Optical losses and quality factors72

http://www.csgoeats.com/doc/info-92c43dedbcd126fff6050b1f.html sing in whispering-gallery cavities72

D.Evanescent field coupling73 IV.Smooth Deformation73

A.Weak deformation:Nearly integrable ray dynamics73

B.Moderate deformation:Mixed phase space74

1.Adiabatic curves and dynamical eclipsing74

2。Gaussian modes based on stable periodic orbits75

3.Dynamical tunneling75

http://www。360docs。net/doc/info-92c43dedbcd126fff6050b1f。html rge deformation:Predominantly chaotic dynamics76

1.Chaotic saddle and its unstable manifold76

2.Dynamical localization and scar modes79

3.Level statistics80

4.Partial barriers and turnstile transport81

D。Perturbation theory82 V。Cavity with Sharp Corner or Boundary Defect83

A。Polygonal cavity83

B.Boundary defect84 VI.Mode Coupling85

A.Avoided resonance crossings85

B。Exceptional points87 VII。Unidirectional Free-space Light Emission from

Deformed Microlasers89

A.Spiral-shaped cavity89

B。Interior whispering-gallery modes90

C.Annular cavity90

D.Limaçon cavity91

E.“Face”cavity92

F.Ellipse with a notch93 VIII.Beam Shifts and Semiclassical Approaches95

A.Beam shifts95

B.Wavelength-scale microcavities97

C.Semiclassical approaches99 IX.Rotating Microcavities100

A。Sagnac effect in microcavities100

B。Wave chaos in rotating cavities101

C.Rotation-induced changes of quality factors

of open microcavities102

D。Far-field patterns from rotating microcavities

of deformed shape103 X。Summary and Prospects104 Acknowledgments104 References104 I。INTRODUCTION

A。Motivation

Optical microcavities can greatly enhance light-matter interactions by storing optical energy in small volumes

*hui。cao@yale。edu

†jan。wiersig@ovgu。de

REVIEWS OF MODERN PHYSICS,VOLUME87,JANUARY–MARCH2015

0034-6861=2015=87(1)=61(51)61©2015American Physical Society

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